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Many Pratinidhi Dravyas in Ayurvedic classics are mentioned and certainly are based on a methodical approach, which involves many aspects.
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These principles on which Pratinidhis were decided are quoted nowhere; so both to understand the established Pratinidhis and to find new ones a rational approach is the need of the hour.
This article is an effort in the direction to study this concept meticulously in light of modern techniques for its better understanding and application. As there are very few established parameters, which help for selection and evaluation of Pratinidhi Dravyas. A rational technique like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy may be incorporated to set a new dimension.
As most of the routine analytical techniques are separation based, overall component load cannot be predicted. Introduction The world today is facing an increasingly disturbing trend of depletion of its natural resources such as petroleum, drugs, food, and lot of other materials.
Intensive research is being carried out all over the world to find alternatives for these resources. Plant resources particularly medicinal plants are disappearing at an alarming rate and not enough attention is being given to seek alternate sources or substitutes for many of these plants. Materials and Methods Available Ayurvedic and allied literatures were studied for comprehensive understanding of concept of Pratinidhi Dravyas.
Relevant information from various different texts, journals, and internet media was also utilized based on availability and necessity for comprehensive understanding of the subject. A detailed list of classical drugs and their Pratinidhis with botanical names was prepared, which was critically studied and divided under various subclasses with possible logic involved them.
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Here, an attempt has been made to light on certain newer technique like FTIR which may be useful as one of the tool to analyze the concept of Pratinidhi Dravya. Nov 12, Read Online Dhanvantari nighantu pdf: bhavprakash nighantu pdf download raj nighantu dhanvantari.
See what else you. Mar 23, CA using one-way. Indications and contra indications of the drug When it is found that different drugs having similar nomenclature are mentioned in a single formulation then the purpose, the context, the treatise, and the reasoning should be taken into consideration for their proper usage.
For example, Vasa is a well-known Rakta-Pittahara drug, but due to its abortifacient activity its utility in pregnant women is limited, instead drugs such as Laksha and Ashoka can be substituted. Instead of Bhallatka Semicarpus anacardium Linn. On the basis of morphological resemblance Morphological resemblance play an important role in case of plant substitution as synonym of Nimba tree Azadirachta indica A.
Juss is mentioned for Aralu Ailanthus excelasa Roxb. The root tubers and bulbils of many Dioscorea species are used as articles for food by the tribal people of the forest.
They are the Yams known by different names such as Pitalu, Kasalu, and Pindluka. So, as the drug Spirulina Spirulina platensis - Oscillatoriaceae this resembles Chlorella and Aphanizomenon flos - Aquae; which are also called as blue green algae.
Regional substitutes on the basis of vernacular names as linguistics More than one official substitute is used on the basis of the regional variation. One has to include region-wise traditionally used substitutes in study of substitutes. Prodr - Fabaceae is known as Ubho Sameravo.
Usage of other parts of the same drug Rather than exploitation of the whole drug, the easily available parts of the same plants may be used to enrich the introduction of Pratinidhi Dravya.
For example, leaves in place of fruits. Procurement of authentic Dashamoola in the market is a herculean task, so the parts of these plants may be useful.
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Thus, to encounter this problem of unavailability, resemblance and synonyms based on morphology of the drug should be assessed for selection of different botanical species, which can be used as source plants for a particular drug. To overcome this problem of depletion in depots of medicinal plants, measures such as cultivation and propagation are good options.
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Both the Government as well as the private sectors is trying to overcome this problem. By looking in the overall scenario, it seems that this option has its own limitations as up to some extent it is true that some plants grow properly only in their natural habitat. When particular medicinal substances are specifically mentioned then there should not be any question of substitute.
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Use of pure authentic substitute instead of adulterated original substances is becoming the order of the day at the present time.
To cross this barrier, we can use the drugs, which are not explained in the Ayurvedic literatures but which are available in natural sources abundantly. Before such usage, these drugs should be assessed based on synonym, homonym, or regional language, similarity and usage.
Thus, the region-wise introduction of the substitutes is the only criteria to achieve the task of herbal practices in Indian sub-continent. Along with efficacy, the safety and efficacy of the drug should also be analyzed on various parameters. Though there are very few established tools to find out substitutes of drugs.
Efforts in this direction are also needed. The holistic approach of treatment in Ayurveda believes that there will not be encouraging pharmaco-dynamic or chemotherapeutic actions; these drugs show only pharmaco-therapeutic action.
For example, Shankapushpi reduces hypertension, but does not cause hypotension in healthy volunteers. Thus, it is the need of the hour that Ayurvedic drugs should be assessed as a whole rather than a single moiety.
The analytical tools like FTIR may be rational for finding out substitutes, as routine analysis techniques are separation based so overall component load cannot be predicted hence it is prime necessity to compare the drugs with a whole aspect.
Using application of recent advanced absorption techniques like FTIR, is the new dimension which is need of the situation to be applied for standardization of herbal drugs. By FTIR solid, liquid, or gaseous material can be analyzed as a whole mixture. FTIR is a non-destructive technique; it provides a precise measurement method which requires no external calibration.
It can identify unknown materials as well as quality or consistency of a sample and the amount of components in a mixture. To support this claim, a previous research has proved that; assessment of herbal medicines by chemo metrics-assisted interpretation of FTIR spectra was done successfully. The research has dealt with 10 different species of Orthosiphon stamineus from different geographical origins and varieties having varied complex mixture.
It has been concluded as this model may be of great use for quality inspection of raw herbal material on a continuous basis as new batches are produced. Chemo metrics analysis of spectra data is rapid and simple since no chemical treatments of samples are required.
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